This classic introductory text focuses on the polyphonic vocal style perfected by Palestrina. Unlike many other texts, it maintains a careful balance between. Counterpoint: the polyphonic vocal style of the sixteenth century / by Knud Jeppeson [sic] ; translated [from the Danish] with an introduction by Glen Haydon . COUNTERPOINT. The Polyphonic Vocal Style of the Sixteenth Century. Knud Jeppesen. Jeppesen. This clau intrusion titles i ilir poliiburi Yul style titted by.
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This tendency to think up artificial, difficult exercises seems to grow in the course of the seventeenth century.
Counterpoint: the polyphonic vocal style of the sixteenth century; ( edition) | Open Library
The following rule may be set up as a primary law in the evolution of music: For practical pedagogical reasons it is worth while to keep the subjects separate. Only where tension exists between the two dimensions is poly- phonic art in the deeper sense possible. What Wolfflin says of baroque painting may well be applied, in the field of music, to the art of Bach. The independence is not the aimless counterpoitn of primitive art; each voxal detail is conditioned by the whole without, however, ceasing to be an entity.
Counterpoint: The Polyphonic Vocal Style of the Sixteenth Century
In the third species, consequently, four quar- ters are written against each whole note in the cantus firmus. In other words, he forbids auxiliary notes even if they occur in very short note values, and he thereby formulates a rule which is not entirely in accord with the practice, but nevertheless which serves him as a point of departure.
Although the sixteenth century quite unmistakably prepared the way for the seventeenth and with it for the rise of emotional, subjectively tinged music, it is clear that this characteristic is manifested more in its attempts than in its deeds.
So far as we know, however, he did not leave any written documents which might enlighten us as to the nature of his instruction.
Counterpoint: the polyphonic vocal style of the sixteenth century;
Riemann naturally had to regard it so, sixteeth for him Bach polyphony was the only acceptable polyphonoc for all study of counterpoint, and to this type of polyphony the work of Fux could not lead, nor was it intended that it should. Ordinarily the half note is the longest value which may form a dissonance, and yet this is admissible only on the weak beat hence on the second and fourth half notes in a measureand there it is permissible only in conjunct motion.
In Bach, however, certain countetpoint impulses, as Spitta has indicated, lie at the base of the musical structure; a certain modulatory disposition is present. This thought has given me the desire and courage to work out this book. This technique of composition couunterpoint so little in accord with later con- cepts of musical law and procedure that in the beginning of the past century, when a serious interest in the history and evolution of music was very much in evidence, people were inclined to look upon the Musica enchiriudis and the other treatises of Hucbald, Guido, and the other earliest writers, as purely free speculations and theoretical fan- cies.
And thus the influence of theory reacts upon practice.
Counterpoint: The Polyphonic Vocal Style of the Sixteenth Century : Knud Jeppesen :
In Adriano Banchieri’s Cartella music ale, a work which appeared in in Venice, we find almost exactly the same arrangement of the species as in Fux: While the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries the ars antiqua and the greater part of the ars nova period only took this purely negative atti- tude toward the dissonance, by the fifteenth century the situation began to change.
It is recognized that musical theory has a retrospective as well as a descriptive character. The explanation counteroint conceivable, however, that the theorists of the seventeenth century believed the new style, in cntury of its otherwise valuable charac- teristics, not well adapted to pedagogical uses. In harmony chords are presupposed: A counterpoint can be constructed either over a cantus firmus in notes of equal length, which is called cantus planus, or over pooyphonic cantus figuratus, a melody consisting of notes of mixed time values.
Contrapuntal theory is not content merely to formulate the rules which it observes in practice or which it thinks it observes there; it begins to consider methods which will lead growing composers quickly and thor- oughly to the mastery of the technique of music, methods particularly useful to them in practice. Besides, he does not discuss various more modern advances in music. Such a way of composing, however, is good only sixteeenth a particularly beautiful effect is attained by it, or if it is required by strict imitation.
Otherwise with respect to the treatment of quarters as dissonances, it is remarkable that the so-called auxiliary notes, 13 which are unusually cuonterpoint in practice, receive only slight attention from the theorists.
In the second book of Tinctoris is tje list of dissonances, which are tersely defined as combinations that sound bad. Both, however, had only vague notions of the real problems of counterpoint, simply because for those times, which received the polyphonic style as a gift at birth, so to speak, such problems scarcely existed. Reprint of the Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Besides, seconds, which are dissonances of much sharper character than those one was supposed to avoid, are introduced in the examples repeatedly.
It is evident that Tinctoris was a practical musician who displayed an independence quite foreign to his time of the classic “auctores,” otherwise regarded as unshaken authorities, and of vofal philosophical speculations. Yet, besides the polyyphonic and the madrigal, the secular laude, which flourished in Italy at the same time as the jrottola, directly influenced the later development of sacred music. Unlike many other texts, it maintains a careful balance between theoretical and practical problems, between historical and systematic methodology.
He turned directly to the musical works. Furthermore, it is taught that an ascending or descending step- wise movement in quarters should not begin on the first beat in the measure; it is best to let these movements in quarters begin in the place of the unaccented halves. In his discussions of the passing dissonances or “dis- sonanze sciolte” free dissonancesthis feeling is very noticeable.
If, however, the content of the text is serious, then there is little or no difference with respect to style and the treatment of consonances and dis- sonances between the masses and motets of these masters and their madrigals.
The follow- ing editions are also recommended: And strangely enough I believe either one of these plans can be justified — on different grounds, of course. A more implacable critique than polyhonic of the sixteenth century has never been applied to the fantastic, ceremonious Gothic of the Middle Ages.
Treatment of the Dissonance The attitude toward the dissonance must be mentioned at this point. The reader will realize that in music, from time to time, some progress is made; sicteenth old-fashioned compositions we can see that the composers placed passing dis- sonances in whole notes against a breve which is equal to two whole notes whereby they let conterpoint first be a consonance on the strong beat while the second was a dissonance.
A verse or two from the Psalms or a simple couplet or quatrain will afford an ample text. Experience teaches us that the ear which is hurt by a disso- nance finds the consonance which immediately follows so much the more charming and beautiful. After couunterpoint half notes, whether syncopated or not, the first of two quarters descending sixteentb can be a dissonance, but only in descending motion; in the opposite direction only the poluphonic, unaccented, quarter may be made a dissonance.
Fux, however, was fully aware that one is confronted with a choice in the matter of music theory; one does not learn everything of signifi- cance from any one style-species. And many examples can be found in which modern comoosers use the seventh, too, unprepared and accented. We find, for example, that Fux, who expressly declares in his Gradus that he has chosen Palestrina as his model, stands only in a somewhat remote relation to Palestrina’s music.
Larger libraries have the complete editions of the works of Palestrina by Hreitkopf und Hartel. One must not accompany the tenor with perfect con- sonances of the same size, but one may very well do so with imperfect consonances.