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Fortunately there is a procedure that reduces both the tree branches that must be generated and the number of evaluations.

The simple idea of branch and bound is the following: The second improvement is dynamic programming. Show the state of the data structure Q and the visited list clearly at every step. But one thing that lacks in both is that whenever they find a solution they immediately stop. We will discuss the technique with the same example as that handotus branch-and- bound. Support your answer with examples of a few trees.

He has to drive on his car but doesn’t know the way to air port. Given the following tree, use the hill climbing procedure to climb up the tree. Support your answer with an example tree.

The maximizer wishes to maximize the score so apparently 7 being the maximum score, the maximizer should go to C and then to G. They never consider that their might be more than one solution to the problem and the solution that they have ignored might be the optimal one. At last from H we find L as the best.

Both have their advantages and disadvantages.

## CS607 Handouts

Simulate the algorithm on hancouts given graph below. Handoits select H which is the best of them. Hence we block all the further sub-trees along this path, as shown in the diagram below. Suggest solutions to the commonly encountered problems that are local maxima, plateau problem and ridge problem.

Their goals are usually contrary to each other. Should he follow blind or heuristic search strategy? We convert the map to a tree as shown below.

We will demonstrate this improvement with an example. The maximizer has to keep in view that what choices will be available to the minimizer on the next step. But in reality, exploring the entire search space is never feasible and haneouts times is not even possible, for instance, if we just consider the tree corresponding to a game of chess we will learn about game trees laterthe effective branching factor is 16 and the effective depth is The numbers on the nodes are the estimated distance on the node from the goal state.

On the other hand, if the maximizer goes to B from A the worst which the minimizer can do is that he will force the maximizer to a score of 3. For example, in a game of tic-tac-toe player one might want that he should complete a line with crosses while at the same time player two cd607 to complete a line of zeros.

Here we assume that we have a situation analyzer that converts all judgments about board situations into a single, over all quality number. So traveling further handots S D A B to some other node will make the path longer. Next we visit E, then we visit B the child of E, we bound the sub-tree below B. So we explore D. Hence a huge amount of computation power and time is required in solving the optimal search problems in a brute force manner.

Notice further that if player one puts a cross in any box, player-two will intelligently try to make a move that would leave player-one with minimum chance to win, that is, he will try to stop player- one from completing a line haandouts crosses and at the same time will try to complete his line of zeros. Consider the following diagram. We see that Handots is a leaf node so we bind C too as shown in the next diagram. Hence best first search is handout greedy approach will looks for the best amongst the available options and hence can sometimes reduce the searching time.

Hence using dynamic programming we will ignore the whole sub-tree beneath D the child of A as shown in the next diagram. That is, before making a move vs607 looks a few levels down the game tree to see that what can be the impact cs067 his move and what options will be open to the opponent once he has hancouts this move.

By using “guesses” about remaining distance as well as facts about distance already accumulated we will be able to travel in the solution space more efficiently.

One such procedure is called branch-and-bound method. We then move to F as that is the best option at this point with a value 7. To clarify the concept of adversarial search let us discuss a procedure called the minimax procedure. Hence we always travel with underestimates of the remaining distance. Hence the right most branch of the tree will be pruned and won’t be evaluated for static evaluation.

Also note that while traveling from S to B we have already covered a distance of 9 units. We have shown the sequence of steps in the diagrams below.

Dynamic Programming The idea of estimates is that we can travel in the solution space using a heuristic estimate. Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. Support your answer with handuts examples of a few trees.

### CS Artificial Intelligence Handouts List VU Courses for MCS – Master of Computer Science

So we ignore any further paths ahead of the path S D A B. The length of the complete path from S to G handoutw 9. Its early in the morning and assume that no other person is awake in the town who can guide him on the way. Now A and E are equally good nodes so we arbitrarily choose amongst them, and we move to A.

## Artificial Intelligence (CS607)

We visit F and finally we reach G as shown in the subsequent diagrams. As all the sub-trees emerging from B make our path length more than 9 units so we bound this path, as shown in the next diagram. The values on the nodes shown in yellow are the underestimates of the distance of a specific node from G.